JavaScript ES6 const and let


In this post, We are going to understand JavaScript ES6 const and let keywords with examples. Also, we will learn about how and where to use them and what are the limitations of var statement.

What are the limitations of var statement?

  • The scope of the var is global if declared outside the function.
  • declaring var inside a function makes it valid in function-scope.
  • The value of a variable can be reassigned & declared using var.
  • var variable are hoisting(It is a java script mechanism where variable are moved to top of its scope before execution)and initialize with value of undefined.

To overcome all these limitations, ES6 Introduced the let keyword.

ES6 Two new ways to declare variable

In ES6 Introduced two new ways to declare variables. Before ES6, we used to declare variables using var, var allows us to declare variables based on two scopes (local and global) and (global, function).

let and const allow us to declare block scope variable.

  • let
  • const

Let Statement

let Statement makes us declare a variable whose scope is in the code block(code inside {}braces) or expression in it is used. If let is declared globally or topmost then it does not create the property of a global object(Window).

1.1. Let has code block Scope

Declaring a variable with let make its scope with a block in which let is declare also in sub-block.

let: In this example, we assigned t=5 out of the block, later we assigned t=6 in the block. Every time we are getting different output.

Var: In case of var scope is global we assigned s=1 & later s=2, it considers it the same variable and assigns a new value to variable s. So getting the same output, Inside or outside the block.

//var behavior
//hoisting of s


  var s = 1;
    var s = 2;  //same variable
    console.log('var in the code-block = '+s);  
  console.log('var out the code-block = '+s); 

//let behavior

let t= 5
    let t = 6; //another variable
    console.log(' let with in the code-block = '+t);  
  console.log(' let outside the code-block = ' +t);


var in the block = 2
var out the block = 2
 let with in the code-block = 6
 let outside the code-block = 5

1.2. Let property Scope with global Object (window)

let does not create a property with the global objects. We will understand with an example.

var var_glob = '10';
let let_glob = '20';



1. 3. Redeclaration variable behavior

a variable declared with let can’t be redeclared within function or code block. Although it can be reassigned. if we do so, We will get SyntaxError

We will understand this with an example

 let j = 0;
 let j = 7
j=10; //re initialization can be done



SyntaxError: Identifier 'j' has already been declared

However, we can declare the same variable in the sub-block without any error. Because the variable is treated as a new variable in sub-block, has a different scope.

 let i = 10;
    if (true) {
        let i = 20;



1. 4. Temporal dead zone with Let

Variables declared with let and var are hoisted to the top. As we went through, variable declared with var & initialized with undefined. Whereas variables declared with let are not initialized, accessing variables declared with let before initialization will throw ReferenceError.

We will understand better with Example

function scope() {
  var a = 12;
  let b = 22;


ReferenceError: Cannot access 'b' before initialization

2.const statement

If we declare a variable with const statement, it makes their scope global or local to the code block in which it is declared same as let statement

const VARIABLE_NAME= value;

The name of the const variable name can be lower or upper case. It is a convention to use all upper letters.

Important point

  • const does not create a property with global object (window).
  • const can’t be redeclared or reassigned.
  • const variable need to initialize during declaration otherwise it throws error.
  • const make the variable value read only .It is immutable.

Example : const can’t be re declare or reassign.

//assigning PRICE  again throwing an error.
const PRICE = 500;
 PRICE = 400;


TypeError: Assignment to constant variable.

Example : const variable need to initialize during declaration

const PRICE;


SyntaxError: Missing initializer in const declaration

2.1 const with objects

In this case, a const variable identifier is an object. Its property can be modified. Let us understand with an example, by modifying the object property

Program example

const groceries= { bread: 20,potatoes:40};
groceries.bread = 30; 
groceries.potatoes =60;
console.log(`object modified property  = ${groceries.bread}`)
console.log(`object modified property  = ${groceries.potatoes}`)


object modified property  = 30
object modified property  = 60

Reassign the const object will throw an error

const groceries= { bread: 20,potatoes:40};
groceries = {tomato:10};


TypeError: Assignment to constant variable.

2.2 const with Array

In this case, the const variable identifier is an Array. Its value can be modified. Let us understand with an example, by modifying Array’s values.

const groceries= [ 'bread','potatoes'];
groceries[0] = 'sugar';
groceries[1] = 'biscuits'
console.log(`Array's values =\n ${groceries[0]}\n ${groceries[1]}`);


Array's values =

Reassigning the Array will throw a type error.

Let us understand the same with an example.

const groceries= [ 'bread','potatoes'];

groceries = ['test','test2'];


TypeError: Assignment to constant variable

Different between let and const

  • const can’t redeclare and reassign in same scope.Whereas let can be reassign.
  • const is immutable,once it is declared,it can’t be modified except with objects and Array properties can be modified.let can be mutable.
  • const need to be initialized during declaration, but let does not need to be initialized.

Similarity between Let and const

  • let and const don’t create global object property(window).
  • const behavior is same as let with Temporal dead zone
  • let and const have block scope except let can be reassigned in block or re-declare in sub-block.

Summary :

We have explored JavaScript ES6 const and let. Also, we learned Where and how to use them.